The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

It was launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa, with the aim of replacing the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.

AFCAC was created by the Constitutive Conference organized by ICAO and the Organization of African Union (OAU), now African Union Commission (AUC) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 1969. AFCAC became a Specialized Agency of the OAU now African Union on 11 May, 1978.
AFCAC is a self-governing organization in which all the African members of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) can be become members. The AFCAC Constitution was adopted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 17 January, 1969 and revised on 16 December, 2009 in Dakar, Senegal.

AFCAC is the Executing Agency of the Yamoussoukro Decision (YD).AFCAC in this regard is also entrusted with the responsibility of seeing to the establishment of a Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) through the full implementation of the YD in line with the AU Agenda 2063.